Hygienestatus frisch erlegter Fasanen (Phasianus colchicus, Ph. torquatus, Ph. mongolicus, Ph. versicolor) aus verschiedenen Revieren in Deutschland
The hygienic status of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus, Ph. torquatus, Ph. mongolicus, Ph. versicolor) from different hunting grounds in Germany
Ort und Jahr der Promotion
Hannover, Tierärztl. Hochsch., Diss., 2000
As part of a research funded by the German Federal Ministry of Health (project Gz. 424 7030 - 56/91) investigations on the hygienic status were carried out on a total number of 96 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L.) bagged between November 8th, 1996 and December 13th, 1997 from twelve different hunting grounds in Germany.In the course of this study bacteriological, pathoanatomical, physical and parasitological examinations were performed on the basis of the Gf1HG, F1HG and the VwFIHG as legal regulations for hygiene in slaughtered animals.The microbiological findings for the pheasants were dependent on the conditions of the hunt. Pheasants for which remarks on hunting conditions were recorded were found o have higher microbiological concentrations, particularly for human pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and in one case, Clostridium spp. The number of bacteria found in muscle tissue were closely related to wing and/or leg fractures, toby shot and to the hard impact of the carcass on thepenetration of the body cavity ground. The investigation of meat quality parameters indicates that pheasant flesh is suitable for very limited ageing only. In agreement to discussion in the literature the course of pH levels as indicator of poultry spoilage, was also found to be not homogeneous at the two points of measurement. Due to the broad variation in the values measured and the unambiguous bleeding-out behaviour, the Plexiglas compression technique used to determine water absorption capacity and degree of bleeding out appears to be unsuitable for determining ageing parameters.The flesh of those pheasants for which remarks were recorded was, especially when handled unhygienically, very susceptible to spoilage. It is essential to point out the importance of a proper gutting technique that avoids soiling the carcass, and prompt refrigeration. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium was found in the appendix of a pheasant after an enrichment procedure, in addition to nine positive findings of Campylobacter spp. (C. sputorum fecalis and C mucosalis each in four cases, and C. lari in one case) underlines this demandment. In 91% of the samples no Campylobacter spp. could be detected.Hygienically
elevant results were found for approximately 10% of the birds examined in this study, clearly indicating that pheasant-meat should always be served well done, in contradiction to some recommended cooking methods.Routine bacteriological examination in accordance with the GF1HG does not seem feasible for game birds due o their relatively low monetary value compared with other types of game. Therefore in case of any doubt no part of the bird should be used for human consumption and the entire carcass should be disposed of safely.The parasitological examination revealed minor infestations with Coccidia spp. and Ascaridia spp.. No Sarcosporidia spp. were discovered in the musculature. In three cases ectoparasites were found.The concentrations of organic chlorinated pesticides and PCB in samples of fatty tissue and liver were low and did not exceed the legal levels in any case.No heavy metal contamination with lead (Pb) or mercury (Hg) could be determined, but low levels of cadmium (Cd) were found in 8% of the pheasants examined here.